Chapter 1: The First Texans
1) How did different Indian groups adapt the environment to their needs? How did the environment shape their culture? (You will need to consult a good physical map for this question.) How do you think this compares to the large degree of human control of the environment today?
2) What factors made the Caddo the most “advanced”? What does “advanced” mean?
3) How were the major Indian groups similar and different?
4) What were some significant cultural mores and developments of different Indian groups?
Chapter 2: Exploration and Adventure, 1519-1689
1) What led to the Age of European Exploration? What motivated Spanish and French exploration and lack of exploration in Texas?
2) How did the environment affect Europeans? (consider everyday life, motivations, etc.)
3) What happened to Europeans in early Texas? Who were these men? How did they attempt to force their mores on others?
4) Why was there so little interest in Texas for so long after its “discovery,” and what revived this interests?
5) How did the Spanish respond to French presence?
Chapter 3: Spanish Texas, 1690-1779
1) Why did Spain abandon Texas for twenty years, from 1693-1714?
2) What were missions and presidios, and what effect did this have in Texas? What has the Indian response?
3) What troubles did Europeans face in New Spain? How were the French and Spanish similar and different?
Chapter 4: Spanish Texas in the Age of Revolutions, 1779-1821
1) How was the Mexican Revolution connected to other conflicts of the late 1700s and early 1800s? What consequences did this revolution have elsewhere?
2) How was Texas involved (and not involved) in this revolutionary era? What were the consequences of this?
3) How did the Louisiana Purchase affect Texas?
Chapter 5: Mexican Texas, 1821-1835
1) What factors–in Mexico, the United States, and elsewhere–resulted in the beginnings of an “Anglo Texas”?
2) What role did enslaved (and Black) individuals play in the movement of people into Texas? What threatened this cultural and economic system?
3) What tensions existed and where, why, etc? What factors are necessary to create a sustained and successful nation? Why did Edward’s idea not succeed?
4) What cultural conflicts existed between various peoples and groups?
5) What factors were precursors to the Texas Revolution?
6) What changed from Spanish Texas to Mexican Texas?
Chapter 6: The Texas Revolution, 1835-1836
1) According to the textbook, what events lead to the Texas Revolution?
2) Who was unhappy with Mexican rule, and why?
3) How did Mexico respond to this “rebellion”?
4) What happened during the military phase of the Texas Revolution? Why is the Alamo so important? What about San Jacinto?
Chapter 7: The Republic of Texas, 1836-1846
1) Was Texas ever really an independent nation?
2) What troubles, including diplomatic ones, did the Republic of Texas face? What finally resulted in full acceptance by the United States?
3) How were the Houston (first and second) and Lamar Administrations alike and different?
Chapter 8: Frontier Texas, 1846-1861
1) What factors led to war between the United States and Mexico, and what happened during this war?
2) What did everyday life look like on the Texas frontier in the South? What about in the West?
3) How were Indians treated on the frontier?
Chapter 9: Empire State of the South, 1846-1861
1) What characterized the economy in Texas, how did it compare to both the North and to the South overall, and why?
2) What was the social/class structure of Texas like in the 1840s through the early 1860s? How does this compare with the structure on the frontier (chapter 8)?
3) How did the environment shape everyday life (culture, economy, health, etc.) in Texas?
4) What was everyday life like for an enslaved person? How did these people protest? How did everyday life differ for enslaved Blacks and enslaving Whites?
5) How and why did the future of the institution of enslavement become a concern?
Chapter 10: The Civil War, 1861-1865
1) According to the text, why did Lincoln take the approach he did? How did Texas respond to the sectional conflict as it approached?
2) What were the immediate causes and effects of the Texas vote for secession?
3) How did the Civil War affect Texas—its people (those far and against the war) and infrastructure?
Chapter 11: Reconstruction, 1865-1876
1) What were the immediate consequences of the Civil War?
2) What characterized the era of Reconstruction and its various phases? What was its legacy?
3) What happened to those who were enslaved prior to the mid-1860s?
4) What did the new government in Texas ultimately look like on paper and in practice?
Chapter 12: The Old West, 1877-1900
1) What were the causes and effects of the Salt Creek Massacre? Why is this event important, and how does it relate to larger issues?
2) Why were cattle so important after the Civil War? Why did people crave Texas beef? How did it become a big business in the state?
3) What role does myth play in public perception of cattle, cowboys, the West, etc.?
Chapter 13: The New South and the Populist Revolt, 1877-1900
1) How was the “New South” different from the “Old South”?
2) How, when, and why did railroads transform the state? (Be sure to consider unions, urbanization, etc.)
3) What happened with agricultural at this time? What was the economic situation?
4) What was the Grange? What did they do and why? What were the results?
5) Who were “redeemers,” and what did they do? How do they relate to the broader conservative politics of the era?
6) What is the importance of James Stephen Hogg?
7) What role did populism play in Texas at this time?
Chapter 14: The Progressive Era, 1901-1920
1) What were the defining characteristics of the Progressive Era (be sure to look at racism, sexism, etc.)? How do these compare to prior decades? What event caused this era to end and why?
2) How does the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 represent a test case for Progressivism?
3) How did the 1901 oil discovery at Spindletop transform Texas?
4) Who was Thomas M. Campbell? What major issues characterized his tenure?
5) Who was James E. Ferguson? How does he compare to Campbell?
Chapter 15: The “Prosperity Decade,” 1921-1929
1) How was Texas prosperous (and not) during the 1920s?
2) What was the Klu Klux Klan, and why is it important?
3) What political tensions existed in the 1920s? What individuals became significant figures?